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2024 Economic and Market Outlook: A Return to Sound Money

In its latest economic and market outlook, Vanguard, a leading global investment management company, predicts a significant shift in the global financial landscape for 2024. The company anticipates a return to ‘sound money’, a financial environment characterized by positive real interest rates that provide a solid foundation for long-term risk-adjusted returns.

Monetary Policy and Interest Rates

Central to Vanguard’s outlook is the expectation that monetary policy will become more restrictive in real terms. This shift is anticipated as inflation falls toward central banks’ targets. The tightening of monetary policy is likely to lead to below-trend growth and a mild recession in some developed markets.

As a result, central banks will start to cut policy rates in the second half of 2024. However, these cuts will not reach the zero or negative levels seen after the 2008 global financial crisis. Instead, the higher-rate environment will persist for years. This persistence is expected to be driven by demographic trends such as aging populations, higher structural fiscal deficits, and long-term productivity growth.

Implications for Investors

For long-term investors, the implications of this shift are significant. Vanguard believes that higher interest rates are the best economic and financial development in 20 years. They imply higher expected returns for fixed income and more balanced outcomes for diversified portfolios.

However, the transition to this new environment may be bumpy. Equity valuations are likely to face downward pressure, and profit margins are likely to decline. This could lead to increased market volatility and potential losses for investors who are not prepared for these changes.

In addition to these challenges, Vanguard also sees more opportunities outside the U.S. The U.S. dollar is expected to weaken, and non-U.S. markets are more attractively valued. These factors could provide additional investment opportunities for those willing to diversify their portfolios geographically.


In conclusion, Vanguard’s 2024 outlook suggests a return to ‘sound money’, with higher interest rates providing a solid foundation for long-term risk-adjusted returns. While the transition may be challenging, it also presents opportunities for investors who are prepared to adapt their strategies and maintain a diversified portfolio.

You can find a link to the full article from Vanguard here.


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